The programmes of study for writing at key stages 1 and 2 are constructed similarly to those for reading:
• transcription (spelling and handwriting)
• composition (articulating ideas and structuring them in speech and writing).
Teaching develops pupils’ competence in these two areas. Children are be taught how to plan, revise and evaluate their writing. These aspects of writing have been incorporated into the programmes of study for composition. Writing down ideas fluently depends on effective transcription: on spelling quickly and accurately, this is taught through daily phonics sessions (EYFS/KS1) and focussed spelling lessons (Y2-6). Writing also depends on fluent, legible and, eventually, speedy handwriting. To support the development of composition, we aim for children to enjoy writing and to find the process creative, enriching and fulfilling. Children are encouraged to express and record their thoughts and ideas in all areas of the curriculum using a variety of genres and styles.
Teachers teach pupils the vocabulary they need to discuss their reading, writing and spoken language. The pupils learn the correct grammatical terms in English and these terms are integrated within teaching. Grammar is taught through English lessons and other timetabled sessions.
During Key Stage 1, pupils encode the sounds they hear in words (spelling skills), develop the physical skill needed for handwriting, and learn how to organise their ideas in writing. They will be encouraged to develop positive attitudes towards and stamina for writing.
During Key Stage 2, pupils develop the understanding that writing is both essential to thinking and learning, and enjoyable in its own right. They start to explore how the English language can be used to express meaning in different ways. They use the planning, drafting and editing process to improve their work and to sustain their fiction and non-fiction writing. The children will also learn to write consistently with neat, legible and joined handwriting. Pupils are shown how to understand the relationships between words, how to understand nuances in meaning, and how to develop their understanding of, and ability to use, figurative language. They are shown how to work out and clarify the meanings of unknown words and words with more than one meaning.
Pupils are taught to control their speaking and writing consciously and to use Standard English. They are taught to use the elements of spelling, grammar, punctuation and ‘language about language’ listed in the National Curriculum 2014.
Pupils are taught the vocabulary they need to discuss their reading, writing and spoken language. They will learn the correct grammatical terms in English. The teaching of writing focuses on developing pupils’ competence in the two dimensions of transcription and composition. Writing down ideas fluently depends on effective transcription: that is, on spelling quickly and accurately through knowing the relationship between sounds and letters (phonics) and understanding the morphology (word structure) and orthography (spelling structure) of words.
In both Key Stages, writing composition is taught through teaching 'The sequence for writing' which moves the children from Reading (comprehension/analysis), through to Gathering Content (for planning) and then Writing. Teachers will also use the strategy of shared writing to support the children: teacher modelling, scribing the children's ideas and supported composition.